Phase 3 Key Achievements 3.2 from the 5G PPP includes 129 highlighted results from the phase 3 projects.
Projects results are categorised under 20 program level themes as shown by the symbols here.
Phase 3 Key Achievements 3.2 from the 5G PPP includes 129 highlighted results from the phase 3 projects.
Projects results are categorised under 20 program level themes as shown by the symbols here.
Please click on the symbols to see the relevant results.
5G Blueprint run and demoed initial experiments to evaluate 5G SA performance and analyze the feasible of a) teleoperating vehicles at 70 km/h, b) check the feasibility of teleoperated platooning, and c) feasibility of teleoperate cargo vessels. Such demonstrations have been performed in the Ports of Vlissingen, The Netherlands and Port of Antwerp, Belgium. In the final phase of the project, cross-border experimentation will be performed at Zelzare are in the borderline of Belgium and The Netherlands. [5GBlueprint-1] [5GBlueprint-2]
Platform service for facilitating the design, customization and automated execution of vertical-oriented experiments over 5G full-chain facilities [5GEVE-2]. For such experiments the platform provides the vertical users with detailed performance monitoring data, experiment results analysis, 5G KPIs validation and automated diagnostics [5GEVE-7]. The 5G EVE platform service is available through three interface flavours: an Intent -based interface, a Portal GUI, and a set of Open APIs [5GEVE-6].
5GENESIS KPIs validation methodology has been defined in deliverables of WP6 while the main results on the 5G KPIs collected are provided in D6.3 [5GENESIS-4]. The evaluation process included scenarios from a variety of vertical sectors, including: Smart Transport, Smart Cities & Utilities, Mission Critical Communication & Public Safety as well as Media and Entertainment.
5G-CARMEN implemented and evaluated cross-border 5G for Cooperative, Connected and Automated Mobility (CCAM) services represented by mission-critical cooperative manoeuvring use case with network-assisted MEC/orchestrated edge cloud services collecting and aggregating road perception data for manoeuvre assistance and recommendations. For each manoeuvre scenario, plus additional enabling services like precise positioning and predictive QoS, KPIs were defined, and intensive lab and road testing was carried out. Cross-border 5G for CCAM proved to be feasible already in commercial, public 5G NSA networks, while further improvements can and will need to be achieved with 5G SA mid-term for actual deployment of demanding 5G for CCAM services. [5G-CARMEN-1] – [5G-CARMEN-4]
In relation to the automotive sector, 5GCroCo specified in detail the three use cases (ToD, HD Mapping, and ACCA) that were validated in a cross-border scenario. For each use case, 5GCroCo defined different user stories, the conditions of the test cases associated to each user story, the monitored KPIs per user story, and the locations where the test and trials were demonstrated. [5GCroCo-1] – [5GCroCo-4]
A holistic set of eleven (11) technical challenges (X-Border Issues, XBIs) and 26 considered solutions (CSs), went under extensive trialling for a wide set of 25 CAM applications (as well as application-agnostic scenarios). The project assessed and quantified performance benefits and penalties, associated with a series of key deployment/configuration option. Indicatively [5GMobix-1]-[5GMobix-5]: Inter-PLMN S1 handovers employing S10 interfaces, along with Home Routing configuration can deliver moderate service disruption (200-300ms) suitable for a series of CAM services e.g., truck platooning with see-what-I-see (see-through) services; Home routing delivers acceptable latencies (< 100 ms) for several CAM applications; Currently available LBO mechanisms are immature leading to severe service disruption; Multi-SIM / multi-modem set-ups were validated; substantial benefits from link aggregation, compared to link selection; Application-level protocols e.g., MQTT, often the source of service disruption; substantial room for improvement.
5G-HEART project was focused among other things on the performance evaluation of three verticals: The healthcare scenarios measured a maximum throughput of 784 Mbps DL, 85 Mbps for UL, and a minimum E2E latency of 7-10 ms. The transport use cases measured a maximum throughput of 700 Mbps for DL, a bit more than 60 Mbps for UL and a minimum latency of 6.6 ms. The aquaculture scenarios measured a maximum DL of 812 Mbps, a maximum UL of 350 Mbps and minimum latency of 11 ms.
5GZORRO defined a wide set of KPIs aiming at validating and assessing the performances and key functionalities for the zero-touch security and trust framework developed in the project, which provide a 5G Multi-Stakeholder Marketplace platform for automated real-time services and resources trading, provisioning and orchestration enabled by Smart Contracts anchored in DLTs. Specifically, the defined and measured KPIs targets performances and functionalities of the 5GZORRO framework, including Marketplace, DLTs, Data Lake, AI-driven operations and service lifecycle automation in multi-tenant and multi-stakeholder environments, etc.) [5GZORRO-1]
The ARIADNE project performed an extensive performance analysis and channel characterization for wireless communication in the D-Band (above 100 GHz) frequency spectrum. Towards the project’s end, an evaluation of the developed hardware/antennas for the D Band will be performed.
The DRAGON is developing technologies to build a high-capacity D-band (130-175 GHz) wireless back/front haul link with beam alignment functionality to address the needs of 5G transport networks. It is planned to test the final demo of the project in the field.
REINDEER has analysed interactive use cases in four focus application domains (adaptive robotized factories, warehouses, retail and logistics, immersive entertainment for crowds of people, Human-machine interaction in care environments, hospitals and assisted living, and smart homes). Quantitative technical requirements were derived, a variety of KPI’s formulated including communication and localisation parameters. [REINDEER-2].
5GMED will evaluate the capabilities of 5G technologies (3GPP Rel.16) to meet the strict performance requirements of four CAM and FRMCS use cases in cross-border scenarios. To this end, 5GMED will conduct large-scale trials in the cross-border corridor between Figueres (Spain) and Perpignan (France). Several KPIs (i.e., service end-to-end latency, data rate, reliability, and interruption time) will be measured when vehicles and trains are crossing the border between the two countries, and therefore changing their serving Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN) [5GMED-1] – [5GMED-2]
5G-CARMEN implemented improvements with accelerated network reselection in cross-border scenarios, leading to a defined, fast network reselection with an interruption of only 2-4 seconds in high mobility scenarios. In addition, local/regional breakout to MEC/edge cloud servers in the respective PLMN was implemented, allowing all 5G for CCAM data traffic flowing to the closest local/regional MEC and being processed even cross-border edge-to-edge, to achieve lowest possible end-to-end service latency.[5G-CARMEN-1] – [5G-CARMEN-4]
In relation to the automotive sector, 5GCroCo defined and implemented the required software and hardware of the applications that compose the use cases and the hardware and software architecture of the required network and IT infrastructure. Network architectures providing solutions for cross-border handover, cross-MNO Network Function Virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN), Quality of Service (QoS) prediction, Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC), and precise positioning were specified both for the NSA and SA flavours of 5G. Interoperability issues were analysed and potential solutions, discussed. [5GCroCo-1] – [5GCroCo-4]
Within 5G-Mobix [5GMobix-1]-[5GMobix-5]: we learned that a combination of technologies is needed to support the required continuity and performance. Also, we see most of the requirements can be met with the exception of service continuity. In short: Handover of a data-session between different PLMN’s is possible with an acceptable low loss of data; To keep the latency acceptable during and after the handover, peering is needed at a regional level between the PLMN’s. This to prevent long data routes via the regular IPX exchanges; Local breakouts keep the latency low at a regional level, also while roaming; Switching to local breakout results in an unacceptable large interruption of several seconds. This could be prevented with SSC mode 3 (using 5G SA); Applications need to be aware of possible network changes; Enabling slices for different applications is possible and can give suitable performance guarantees.
The complete architecture of the D-band link including RF front-end, a modem, a baseband, and a phased antenna management module is created in the DRAGON.
An Artificial Intelligence-based Scheduler for a Cell-free Cellular Network with Integrated Access and Backhaul (IAB) [6GBRAINS-3]. An optimal scheduling module implementation in advanced cellular networks is a complex task to perform due to the highly dynamic nature of the network, the network size, the large number of parameters and variables that influence its performance and the lack of deterministic model that can adequately perform the task. 6G Brains developed a sophisticated Scheduler distributed architecture that solves the two main scheduler problems: The Resource Allocation problem using a Supervised Learning AI method and the Routing problem using a Multi-Agent Reinforced Learning AI method. The performance of the Scheduler was simulated and compared to other scheduler modules performance that shows significant improvements in key benchmarks such as end-to-end latency and throughput.
5GMED will specify and validate a scalable, cross-border and multi-stakeholder 5G and AI-enabled system architecture supporting CCAM and FRMCS services that can be replicated along European corridors. The 5GMED network architecture will be composed of six layers (namely, network infrastructure, MEC, orchestration, slice management, cloud, and data analytics layer) and four dedicated interfaces for the management of cross-border connectivity. It will integrate multi-connectivity gateways to allow vehicles/trains to dynamically select alternative wireless access technologies to support 5G (i.e., C-V2X Rel.14, 70 GHz IEEE 802.11ad and satellite), based on network conditions and on specific QoS requirements dictated by the applications [5GMED-1] – [5GMED-2].
5G-ROUTES is deploying 5G SA (Stand Alone) core networks from Ericsson in Estonia and Latvia with cross-border roaming functionality. 5G-ROUTES also implements 5G SA integrated localization solution with GNSS-RTK functionality.
5G-VINNI provided a 3GPP compliant mmWave 5G New Radio installation [5GVINNI-2] while it uses a testing automation supported by OpenTAP (released as open source). OpenTAP is a test automation solution supporting the fast and easy development and execution of automated tests [5GVINNI-3].
The 5G!Drones [5G!Drones-1] [5G!Drones-2] system architecture has been further refined [5G!Drones-3] and finally released with all its components including specific enablers developed [5G!Drones-4] [5G!Drones-5]to support the targeted trials. Its description indicates that the experimenter initially interacts via the web portal with the trial controller domain to describe the scenario, along with the technical description of the network slices and the target KPIs to be evaluated. The trial controller domain coordinates with the infrastructure controller domain so as to run the different experiments on top of the 5G facilities. Furthermore, in order to validate the trial and ensure safe access to the airspace by the drones, the trial controller domain also interacts with the U-space domain through a dedicated interface.
5G-CLARITY multiple wireless technology access scheme by proposing an enhanced access traffic steering, splitting and switching (enhanced-ATSSS) enabled by multi-point TCP (MPTCP) -based multiple access interfaces. [5G-CLARITY-1], [5G-CLARITY-2], [5G-CLARITY-3]
5G-COMPLETE project promotes the use of mmWave mesh nodes enabling P2MP topologies and sub-THz radio systems allowing for fiber-like wireless connectivity [5GC-1]. The mmWave mesh nodes operate in the 60 GHz spectrum band and they use antennas with 360° total coverage, connecting in this way multiple low-cost client nodes which are used as the endpoints of the wireless transport network [5GC-2]. High-speed wireless transceivers targeting 100 Gbps soon have bee also proposed within 5G-COMPLETE [5GC-3]. The targeted carrier frequency is 240 GHz, and the parallel sequence spread spectrum (PSSS) is proposed as a modulation scheme. These high capacity, SDN-enabled THz nodes will be demonstrated in the upcoming experiments in Athens Demo Zone [5GC-2].
5GZORRO developed mechanisms for dynamic spectrum trading, allocation and sharing enabled by the multi-stakeholder marketplace. Specifically, 5GZORRO uses digital spectrum certificates which allow the creation of spectrum resource offerings in the marketplace and its utilization through the 5GZORRO framework by means of spectokens. Indeed, spectrum resources are digitalised in the marketplace DLT through the introduction of spectokens. The spectoken helps keeping track of the historical of transactions of the spectrum resource; and the use of the spectrum resource since the very first moment a radio resource made use of it. In the 5GZORRO marketplace, Spectrum Resource Providers acquire primitive spectokens from a Regulator stakeholder according to the accepted spectrum certificates and are allowed to create spectrum offers associated to spectokens derived from them (Derivative Spectoken). [5GZORRO-1][5GZORRO-2][5GZORRO-3].
The ARIADNE project designed and developed a complete radio access system, including antennas and RIS prototypes, to be integrated and demonstrated towards the project end.
In Affordable5G [AFFORDABLE5G-1], advanced deep reinforcement learning algorithms were designed and deployed based on O-RAN specifications for private network optimization. A cross-layer network telemetry architecture was also deployed in the same context to ensure end-to-end data collection and real-time analytics [AFFORDABLE5G-2].
D-band transceiver front-end building blocks through a low-cost SiGe BiCMOS process, an active antenna array and advanced integration technology have been developed in the DRAGON.
Sub-6 GHz, mmWave, sub-THz, and Optical Wireless Communications Fused Ray-Tracing Model and its Verification from Measurements [6GBRAINS-4]. A precise ray-tracing (RT) model from a real industrial scenario was generated from point cloud data obtained from extensive 3D laser scans. This model was calibrated, verified, and validated with simultaneous multi-band RF measurements at sub-6 GHz and two mmWave bands [6GBRAINS-1]. The ultimate goal is to obtain a fused model covering from sub-6 GHz to the optical spectrum, enabling the RF simulation of heterogeneous networks. This digital twin of the environment will be used to perform realistic analysis on different algorithms for sensing, localization, multi-band and sensor aided beam-forming, between others.
DAEMON is contributing substantially to Open and Virtualized RANs, with a number of contributions to the O-RAN Alliance in WG 2 and WG 3 [DAEMON-2], research work on ML models for RAN Intelligent Control [DAEMON-3], and novel virtualization techniques [DAEMON-4].
Hexa-X project are working on technical enablers for Sub-THz communication, e.g., HW-impairment modelling, waveforms, beamforming and channel modelling as well as techniques for distributed MIMO for mmWave communication. Furthermore, Hexa-X is developing techniques for AI-based air interface design, counteracting HW impairments or improving spectral efficiency. Hexa-X is also exploring solutions for flexible networks looking at architectural enablers to improve and incorporate novel accesses such as D2D, mesh, NTN, and mesh networks.
MARSAL completed the specifications of a cell-free based RAN, while also dynamic RU cluster formation algorithms and precoding optimization techniques for cell-free networks have been developed. The proposed RAN solution follows the specifications of O-RAN, which are extended from MARSAL’s work in order to include the cell-free approach.
REINDEER develops ‘RadioWeaves’ technology, providing a new smart connect-compute platform consisting of interconnected distributed resources to provide uniform good service levels. Architectures are designed to support communication, localisation, and wireless power transfer to interact with energy-neutral devices. A new terminology and federation-based approach is proposed to allocate infrastructure resources to services. Channel characterisation for these new radio networks has been performed based on measurement campaigns. [REINDEER-1] – [REINDEER-2] – [REINDEER-3].
5GRAIL will test the first railway application over FRMCS prototypes, via 5G n8 and n78 radio modules. We have obtained a FRMCS 1900 MHz prototype (1900 – 1910 MHz, TDD, 31 dBm), compatible ECC (20) 02.
Low-cost high-capacity optical fronthaul solutions enabled by advanced modulation formats and wavelength-agnostic passive wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology have been delivered wihin 5G-COMPLETE. To meet the time-sensitive networking demands in support of 5G fronthaul, an FPGA-based implementation providing low latency and low packet delay variation following the latest IEEE 802.1CM specification has been presented [5GC-4]. Aside from the high-speed transport connectivity, the introduction of an intelligent access network equipment capable of hosting Mobile Edge Computing capabilities in a convergence scenario of PtP and PtMP topologies has been proposed [5GC-5]. Beyond the standard digital X-haul interfaces, 5G-COMPLETE has demonstrated a multi-technology hybrid transport architecture that comprises both analog and digital-Radio over Fiber (RoF) mobile network segments relying on a dynamically reconfigurable optical switching node [5GC-6].
TERAWAY has studied 5G evolutionary and beyond 5G access scenarios including densification, mmWave RAN and disaggregation to analyze and define the main application scenarios and use cases for THz-band wireless transport [TERAWAY-1]. B5G xHaul constitutes the main scenario for TERAWAY [TERAWAY-2] and requirements for THz transport in fronthaul / midhaul and backhaul architectures have been defined for fixed and moving node cases. System specifications have been defined to meet throughput requirements expected in evolutionary centralized and distributed radio architectures and to allow integration in SDN management architecture. Multi-band photonic-based W/D/THz tuneable communication modules have been designed and will be used in the project demonstrations, focused on fixed xHaul applications. Market analysis including 5G deployment timeline, mmWave product roadmaps and spectrum and network/service evolution has been conducted defining a preliminary roadmap for the use of mmWave/THz technologies in 5G/B5G mobile networks and the base for exploitation analysis.
Int5Gent [I5G-1] integrates a number of data plane technologies under a common service and network resource orchestration platform [I5G-2]. For the access segment the novel Sigma-Delta Radio over Fibre (RoF) scheme is defined and implemented [I5G-3] alongside the common digital RoF scheme and the forward looking Analogue RoF technology. A passive wavelength routing scheme is deployed for the fronthaul/metrohaul segment [I5G-4] and examined in parallel to mmWave mesh radio connectivity technology. A baseband processor platform for Int5Gent Edge Nodes is designed and implemented and supported by NIC-enabled synchronization engine for time-sensitive edge networking. Interfacing schemes are implemented for the integration of the various technologies as well as for the integration of the upper management and control plane.
B5G-OPEN is developing next generation metro-haul and core infrastructures based on innovative multi-band technology. [B5G-OPEN-1/2/3]
One of the key research tasks of DAEMON consists of the design and development of ML-based network intelligence for in-backhaul intelligence. This consists of augmenting backhaul nodes with smart functionality to process traffic as it flows from the network to users or vice-versa by using with light and fast ML [DAEMON-4].
Interworking framework to unify the end-to-end management of experiments over a multi-site 5G network facility composed of heterogeneous 5G site facilities (in terms of technologies, architectures, orchestration, metrics and tools) managed by different administrative entities ([5GEVE-5]). Therefore, the framework grants vertical users of 5G EVE platform service with a homogenous way of setting their experiments across the constellation of site facilities of 5G EVE ecosystem, and supporting both single-site and multi-site use cases ([5GEVE-3]).
Cross Domain Service Orchestrator (CDSO) enabled end-to-end integration of use cases from 4 domains with 3 geographically distributed ICT-17 facilities and some stand-alone nodes and in some cases with a ZTA feedback loop. Challenges include Network access, Authentication, API adherence, payload & timing. Zero-touch automation (ZTA) mechanisms and solution for network and application optimisations, which allows the definition of rules specific to the 5G vertical, can be used in conjunction with Machine Learning methods to provide for proactive and adaptable behaviour. Full chain integration (including 5G platform VNF orchestration solution, KPI monitoring and collection systems from the platforms, applications, and KPI Visualization System, ML modules, as well as the CDSO) and closed loop optimisations have been proven in the context of the 5G-SOLUTIONS media use cases. Details in [5G-SOLUTIONS-3] … [5G-SOLUTIONS-5] The 5G-COMPLETE solution employs service-driven slice management in 5G and beyond 5G (B5G) networks, while integrating the orchestration of radio, transport, and core network resources as well as cloud and edge computing resources [5GC-7].
5G-COMPLETE aims to build upon a well-defined architecture as well as the network management and orchestration layer with two main goals: i) develop novel networking and compute blocks, integrating them in a heterogeneous infrastructure where service-driven slice management can assist use cases in realistic deployment options [5GC-2], ii) develop solutions to provide a higher and more intelligent level of network management boosted by Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning (AI/ML) assisted tools for improving operational efficiency, energy efficiency and reducing the operational expenditure of 5G and B5G networks [5GC-8].
5GZORRO defined and implemented mechanisms for intelligent and automated cross-domain slices and services management. Specifically, Intelligent and Automated Slice and Service Management (ISSM) functionalities focus on the automation of secure cross-domain business transactions enforcement, interacting with MANO tools slices and services deployment while optimizing resource allocation to inter-domain slices according to business SLAs. In particular, a workflow manager executes orchestration workflows in the context of a business transaction, such as extending a slices across domains in cooperation with Network Slice and Service Orchestration and MANO tools. On top of that, specific AI-driven optimization functionalities optimize the cost-efficiency trade-off of network services and slices required to be created in a context of a specific business transaction and continuously optimize services and slices that have been already set up in previous transaction flow executions. [5GZORRO-4]
In order to manage and orchestrate the complex D band systems, including the RIS, the ARIADNE project is applying AI/ML techniques and is preparing a corresponding demonstrator.
INSPIRE-5Gplus [INSPIRE-5Gplus-1] defined a High Level Architecture (HLA) of a zero-touch end-to-end smart network and service security management framework that enables not only protection but also addresses trustworthiness and liability in managing 5G network infrastructures across multiple domains [INSPIRE-5Gplus-2]. Based on the HLA, INSPIRE-5Gplus developed a set of enablers for the automatic and autonomic end-to-end and multi-domain security management by security policies and SSLAs and to optimize the orchestration, the provisioning, and the chaining of virtualised security functions, micro-services, and virtualised network functions. A detailed description of these enablers is described in D3.2 [INSPIRE-5Gplus-3].
LOCUS put forth the integration and management of virtualized localization data collectors and processors into a virtualization platform to implement the LOCUS localization and analytics “as a service” model. LOCUS defined a high-level functional architecture, together with functions and components. The System Architecture and related Services were designed along with exploring initial deployment options and mapping to Standards. LOCUS contributed to the 3GPP working groups RAN and SA from concept development and solutions for Rel-17 to work item on NR positioning enhancement in Rel-18 and initial discussions in Rel-19. Use cases have been defined and proof of concepts with experimentations of localization techniques and location-based analytics have been conducted.
Description of AI-driven and decentralised management and orchestration architecture, including security, of network slices, achieving the concept of Zero-touch Service Management (ZSM) [Monb5g-1], [Monb5g-2]. Description of AI-driven In-Slice Management (ISM) concept, which reduces number of external slice interfaces and separates slices’ management plane. Description of multi-domain orchestration framework, which provides a strong separation between orchestration domains.
TERAWAY provided the first prototype of a network slice manager that builds end-to-end network slices. In TERAWAY the Transport slice manager (TS-NSMS) includes SDN technology for interacting with fixed network switches and mmWave or THzWave radio modules to allocate and manage the resources required for building the network slices. TERAWAY has followed 3GPP, ONF and IETF specifications to deliver a transport controller to be incorporated into the 5G architecture.
The 5G-IANA Automotive Open Experimental Platform (AOEP) integrates different MANO frameworks for enabling the deployment of the end-to-end network services across different network segments as a virtualized infrastructure (vehicles, road infrastructure, MEC nodes and cloud resources). In fact, 5G-IANA will enable “on-vehicle” MANO by developing a programmable OBU/RSU ready to host containerized services. This will allow developers to take full advantage of the capabilities offered by the different nodes in the infrastructure (i.e., OBUs attached on vehicles and RSUs deployed on the roads) and to address an efficient and effective NetApp deployment and orchestration [5GIANA-1] – [5GIANA-2]. Additionally, 5G-IANA provides support for the orchestration of (distributed) Machine Learning (ML) services, with a particular focus on federated learning. The visibility of mobile, “on-vehicle” resources enable the support of DML orchestration primitives such as FL client selection [5GIANA-3].
5GMediaHUB completed the design of a Cross-Domain Service Orchestrator (CDSO) which is responsible for the orchestration of media NetApps. The workflows for NetApp onboarding, E2E slice ordering as well as interactions with testbeds’ 5G SOs and Domain Monitoring Systems (DMSs) are captured. [5GMediaHUB-2]
Smart5Grid will integrate an M&O framework that will be responsible for managing and coordinating the operations and lifecycle of the virtualised communication/storage/computing resources of the telecommunications network, VNFs, services and NetApps. In addition, the M&O framework will be responsible for the coordination of the network slice over which the communication services and NetApps are instantiated.
VITAL-5G has developed a platform ([VITAL5G-2], [VITAL5G-3]) to automate the provisioning of 5G-enabled T&L services over different 5G testbeds ([VITAL5G-4]) featuring NFV orchestration, network slicing and monitoring capabilities. NetApps, developed as cloud-native applications, are orchestrated in VM-based or container-based virtual infrastructures. The related network slices are instantiated or configured dynamically to meet the NetApps’ mobile connectivity requirements. Network and service KPIs are collected for experimental verification and performance validation, enabling diagnostics and closed-loop mechanisms for automated network and service re-configurations.
Intent-based networking for B5G/6G industrial scenarios [6GBRAINS-5]. The concept of Intent-Based Network (IBN) emerged to introduce a layer of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the sixth generation (6G) networks, solving the problems of traditional networks in terms of efficiency, flexibility and security. This technology has revolutionised the way we interact with systems by starting to communicate through intents. An intent is an expression of the desired state that you want to be realised and can be considered: Portable – can be moved between the different controller and network implementations and remain valid; Abstract – must not contain any details of a specific network; The advantage of an Intent is flexibility, as it allows users to express policies using concepts and terminology that are familiar to the user without having specific knowledge in the field.
The AI@EDGE project introduced the concept of Artificial Intelligence Function or AIF. An AIF is a component of an AI-enabled application deployed across the network from the extreme edge to a centralized core. The AIF models encapsulate all the aspects of the computation associated with the AI application including its requirements. This includes conventional requirements like CPU, memory, and storage as well as more AI-focused requirements like hardware acceleration, support for federated learning, etc. The AIF model explicitly accounts for the training and inference phases allowing the orchestration layer to understand if the reliability of an AI model is deteriorating and if a re-training should be triggered. This model has been tested to deploy and manage several federated learning-based AI applications [AI@EDGE-2]. The AIF concept is combined with a reusable ML pipeline model which allows ML models to be centrally managed and monitored by the AI@EDGE platform. [AI@EDGE-1] – [AI@EDGE-3].
B5G-OPEN is developing next-generation AI-empowered SDN Control and Orchestration system for next-generation multi-band optical networks. [B5G-OPEN-1/2/4/5]
DAEMON is designing a Network Intelligence (NI) plane able to orchestrate intelligence across different domains (radio, backhaul, core) and layers (network function orchestration, network control, data-plane) [DAEMON-5].
A second version of DEDICAT 6G architecture has been defined. The architecture work follows a precise and logical methodology that encompasses various steps, starting from an extensive requirement engineering process including a few new requirements from D2.3 [DEDICAT6G-2], followed by a revised functional decomposition that gives a full catalog at the functionalities which must be specified and implemented in order to fulfill those project technical objectives and an updated description of the non-functional properties it must implement. A logical pathway leads project from the requirement collection and analysis to the targeted system functional decomposition, which consists of a large set of components interacting with each other in order to implement the main concepts introduced in DEDICAT 6G project, namely 1) dynamic radio coverage extension using a variety of mobile access points and edge nodes, 2) dynamic intelligence distribution relying on those edge nodes and 3) federated learning-based trust management. [DEDICAT6G-3]
MARSAL has defined its virtual elastic infrastructure concept for the network management procedures, targeting the disaggregation of containerized application functions both horizontally (i.e., across edge sites) and vertically (i.e., from the cell site towards the core cloud).
Integration with telco cloud and MEC has been tackled in [TF-2] by considering the necessary interactions between an externally-selected NFV Orchestrator and the TeraFlowSDN at the time of automatically deploying network services embracing both compute (e.g., VNFs or CNFs) and networking (i.e., wide-area network) resources. Specifically, the NFV Orchestrator and the TeraFlow OS interact according to a client-server relationship. The selected NFV Orchestrator is the ETSI OpenSource MANO (OSM).
In cross-border scenarios, a UE using a virtualized service might need to change its PLMN when crossing the border, which requires provision of resources and configuration of the same service in the visited PLMN. 5GMED will design and implement a cross-operator service orchestration platform that enables MNOs, neutral hosts, and road/railways operators to deliver service continuity to end-users. The orchestration platform of 5GMED will federate the instances of two domain orchestrators following the specifications of the Operator Platform Group (OPG) [5GMED-1] – [5GMED-2]
The Hexa-X project is developing techniques to enhance the network performance and automation, by enabling incorporation of AI/ML. A key feature to enable this is network and device programmability which will enable frequent and customized configurations with a CI/CD approach. Furthermore, with a cloud-native architecture, dynamic function placements can allow tailored network operations in a small area or during a short period of time.
TeraFlowSDN has been implemented following the cloud-native architecture concept. The software is divided into micro-services that execute specific tasks and collaborate through messages to achieve the end goal for which the software is designed. In TeraFlowSDN, the communication between components is based on gRPC. We defined different RPC methods and messages and grouped them by micro-service [TF-1].
LOCUS has developed an end-to-end service-based architecture with built-in security and privacy, that takes into account the challenges of handling sensitive data.
Description of AI-based closed control loop framework to detect and mitigate attacks on network slices. Introduction of the Security orchestration and Security as a Service concept. Trusted architecture for network slicing deployment. Demonstration of the capabilities of the closed control loop to detect and mitigate attacks using three use cases: In-slice mMTC DdoS attacks on AMF [Monb5g-3] [Monb5g-4], aLTEr attacks (traffic steering and VNF instantiation), and Attack detection and mitigation on Federated Learning (FL) training process.
5GMETA will permit to have a secure and private pipeline to manage services using 5G Network.
COREnect identified several checks and balances to realistically reduce Europe’s dependence on American and Asian technologies. COREnect also made recommendations to ensure trustworthiness and security even when certain components are of untrusted source, e.g., micro-kernel-based operating systems or meta-level fabric for multiprocessor system-on-a-chip design [COREnect-1, COREnect-3].
MARSAL has developed a decentralized framework for confidentiality and hardware-accelerated security mechanisms, targeting safe exchange of confidential data among parties in a B5G/6G network, as well as the development of smart contracts among tenants requesting networks slides. In parallel, MARSAL has also developed a policy-driven solution for data security and privacy in multi-tenant environments.
TeraFlow has contributed with a centralised Cybersecurity Component have been implemented. The preliminary performance and scalability results of the modules using a supervised and an unsupervised learning model have been detailed in [TF-3]. The fundamental procedures of the Distributed Cybersecurity Component have also been implemented and the modules composing the component have been validated. Furthermore, the Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) Component has been implemented based on the modular architecture of Hyperledger Fabric.
INSPIRE-5Gplus has explored and developed a set of security enablement having the potential to significantly contribute to 5G security evolution, such as Trusted Execution Environments, Distributed Ledger Technologies, Liability and Root Cause Analysis, enablers related to network automation & zero-touch management, SSLAs, and Multi-Domain security policies management. The consortium has also worked on significant extensions to the prediction, protection, detection, and mitigation closed loop with new paradigms using AI, ML, and data analytics such as DDoS detection using AI, proactive defence using MTD (Moving Target Defence), ML-driven binary vulnerability detection (for VNFs) as well as detection of malicious VM or container, investigation of possible adversarial Attacks against AI/ML techniques, and the design of the decision engine based on AI that relies on data analytics and an intelligent automated security policy orchestration. All these enablers are detailed in WP3 and WP4 deliverables [INSPIRE-5Gplus-3].
5GENESIS has provided a definition and implementation of the functional architecture for experimentation on 5G infrastructures. That architecture encompasses automation in the experimentation process, openness on VNF on-boarding procedures, and flexibility in KPIs monitoring [5GENESIS-2], [5GENESIS-3]. The experiment automation part of the 5GENESIS architecture has been released under the term Open5GENESIS Suite, which provide in an open-source manner the all the necessary components and tools to any communication platform to become subject of automatic tests and measurement campaigns [5GENESIS-5].
5GASP methodology and tools have already been developed and deployed in 6 testbeds across Europe, open for automated testing using the 5GASP methodology. A service portal provides a 1 stop interface to deploy NetApps and Tests with an ultimate goal of achieving a 5GASP Certification or their NetApps. [5GASP-1] – [5GASP-4], 5GASP provides all its tools using OSS licenses fostering the development of new NetApps [5GASP-5]. Furthermore, has provided educational material such as videos, manuals and an open forum [5GASP-6]
5G-ERA middleware and communication interface for robots. Robot applications are optimised for local deployment with limited network scalability. As a de facto standard in the robot community, ROS1 communication is restricted to broadcasting within the same network. ROS2, which is the latest improvement of the ecosystem addresses the limitation through multicast. Unfortunately, neither of them can satisfy the end-to-end multi-domains and multi-administration nature of real-world networking requirements. 5G-ERA middleware and “unified communication interface” are designed for large scale robot deployment under 5G environments. The interface maintains the support of legacy ROS communication paradigm, at the same time optimised for service endpoints via restful communication. The innovation on platforms and NetApps ensure a smooth switch over from local Wi-Fi based robot applications to global distributed 5G connected intelligence. [5G-ERA-1] – [5G-ERA-5].
5G-IANA will specify and implement an Automotive Open Experimental platform (AOEP) that provides the compute and communication/transport infrastructure as well as the management and orchestration components, coupled with an enhanced NetApp (Network Application) Toolkit tailored to the Automotive sector. The 5G-IANA NetApp toolkit will be linked with a new Automotive VNFs Repository including an extended list of ready-to-use open accessible Automotive-related VNFs and NetApp templates, forming a repository for SMEs to use and develop new applications.
5GInduce will develop and integrate a NetApp management platform; intelligent OSS will be deployed; cloud orchestration platform will be based on scalable microservices; advanced user interface for porting of NetApps will be implemented.
Definitions of internal design and Northbound APIs for NetApps targeting the media applications (mCDN, 360 VR, Remote Broadcasting, UGC, Second Screens). 5GMediaHUB adopts the ETSI NFV model for NetApps and addresses cross-domain orchestration and slicing aspects. Moreover, a NetApps repository is implemented, offering asset management and catalogue services [5GMediaHUB-3].
EVOLVED-5G has released a Workspace on NetApp development. It includes Cloud-driven SDK/CLI [EVOLVED5G-2] tools that come with a detailed “how to develop a NetApp” [EVOLVED5G-3] instructions to facilitate third party developers (including the development teams of each one of the EVOLVED-5G SMEs) to efficiently develop Network Apps. EVOLVED-5G implemented the 3GPP Common API Framework (CAPIF) following the specifications of 3GPP TS 23.222 and 29.222 Rel 17. The related CAPIF services [EVOLVED5G-4] are available in the project’s GitHub repository. EVOLVED-5G implemented the Network Exposure Function (NEF) Northbound standardised APIs following the specifications of 3GPP TS 29.522 Rel. 17 that realizes the openness of the 5G network core. The related standalone NEF emulator [EVOLVED5G-5] is available in the project github [EVOLVED5G-2]. EVOLVED-5G provides also an integrated NEF/CAPIF implementation, offering the whole experience of the 5G core openess to any interested third party.
Smart5Grid will develop and integrate a platform to provide a common place for application developers and consumers. The Smart5Grid platform will be divided into three layers. The first layer will contain a NetApp Verification and Validation framework, an Open service Repository for these NetApps and an Interface Platform. The second layer will contain the virtualisation and telecommunications infrastructure with its associated management functions and orchestration functions. The third and final layer will contain the power infrastructure that contains the network components that connect to the NetApp services.
VITAL-5G has defined a template for NetApp blueprints ([VITAL5G-3]) and implemented a platform ([VITAL5G-5]) for onboarding, provisioning, monitoring and experimentally validating NetApp-based T&L services. VITAL-5G platform provides a service catalogue for onboarding, sharing, and composing NetApp packages, and a portal for building, instantiating, and testing new NetApps and services, with mechanisms for automatic configuration of network slices, collection and analysis of network and service KPIs. VITAL-5G platform is open for third-parties. SMEs and research centres, acting as NetApp developers, can easily build new 5G-enabled applications for the T&L sector starting from the examples available in the catalogue and integrating application components from various vendors. The opportunity to experimentally validate NetApps in realistic and customizable 5G environments speeds up the whole development process. In this direction, VITAL-5G has defined a trials methodology ([VITAL5G-6]), with tools, procedures and testcase templates for experiments in T&L facilities extended with 5G infrastructures.
In order to fulfil its main objective, Int5Gent have defined and implemented a common end-to-end orchestration platform that extends from the end-user-defined service layer to the management of the transport and data plane resources [I5G-5]. The platform combines a) a vertical application orchestrator responsible for the service creation, onboarding and runtime management of services, b) a Management and Orchestration (MANO) framework, including features for 5G network slicing and service orchestration over a hybrid cloud/edge infrastructure and c) an SDN-based control plane, fully integrated in the Int5Gent MANO framework, for service-driven network configuration, runtime self-healing and self-optimization. Enhanced interfaces between NFV MANO elements, SDN-based WIMs for integrated Fiber-Wireless fronthaul/midhaul and cloud/edge infrastructures to enable network slicing in multi-domain and multi-technology environments are also designed and implemented.
5G-ROUTES implements CAM Services platform for offering technological enablers for cross-border CAM Use Cases.
LOCUS has developed innovative signal processing techniques to enhance the 5G and beyond localization accuracy by also exploiting heterogeneous technologies such as multi-RAT (integration with GNSS, WIFi, Bluetooth, and UWB), multi-carrier, multi-connectivity, mmWaves, intelligent surfaces, and device-free localization. LOCUS has designed analytical methods (prediction and multimodal data processing) for the use of localization information in network management, as well as developed advanced analytic mechanisms to analyse the behaviour of devices and targets.
The Hexa-X project are exploring techniques for joint communication and sensing, to enable sensing of objects and environments employing the same hardware and infrastructure used for communication. Hexa-X is also exploring methods to incorporate the sensing and localization information into the network management to enhance the network performance, e.g., through location-based beamforming or trajectory-based connectivity optimization.
REINDEER has developed algorithms and architectures for supporting interactive applications perceived as ‘real-time’ and ‘real-space’, i.e., where the physical and virtual worlds share the same reference frame. These tackle the performance/complexity/interconnect challenges in distributed deployment and cell-free operation. Protocols for initial access, synchronization, and calibration in new distributed networks, are designed. [REINDEER-2] – [REINDEER-4].
Within the scope of 5G-SOLUTIONS project, an innovative smart KPI visualization system has been designed and implemented, leveraging cognitive machine learning techniques, big data analytics and cloud computing approaches, for facilitating and automating the presentation, benchmarking and performance validation of 5G network and application level KPIs against specific target 5G values. The KPIs are retrieved from the applications of 20 use-cases and their underlying 5G networks, which include ICT-17 facilities 5G-EVE, 5G-VINNI Norway, 5G-VINNI Patras, along with some standalone 5G nodes. Data harmonization was done to support the ZTA mechanisms within the project. [5G-SOLUTIONS-3], [5G-SOLUTIONS-6]
Definition of novel E2E slice KPIs for monitoring performance of slices. Graph-based learning for slice KPI prediction. Federated Learning for low SLA violations in beyond 5G network slicing. AI-based Intra and inter slice admission control. [Monb5g-5]. MoNB5G energy techniques: decentralised cross-domains Energy Efficient Decision Engine. Energy efficient at RAN and Edge. [Monb5g-6]. Publication of 5G Datasets collected from project testbeds contributing to the future research of the community [Monb5g-7].
TERAWAY has developed a first generation of full-photonic THz emitter and receiver modules based on a hybrid photonic integration approach comprising lasers, modulators, optical filters, and photonic mmW/THz emitters and receiver chips [TERAWAY-3]. Special mention should be given to the receiver side, which has been enabled by a novel waveguide-based photoconductive antennas [TERAWAY-4] in order to demonstrate a first-ever photonic integrated circuit (PIC) for full-photonic mmW/THz reception [TERAWAY-5]. As of the transmitter side, photonics-enabled beam steering has been demonstrated using TERAWAY’s mmW/THz emitter arrays hybridly integrated with an optical phased array [TERAWAY-6]. Furthermore, TERAWAY has developed controllers that control the operation of large-scale photonic integrated circuits (PICs) related with the generation, modulation, beamforming and detection of broadband signals in mmW and THz links. Additionally, TERAWAY has showcased its technological concept including optical mmW/THz signal generation and beamforming in a bulk implementation [TERAWAY-7].
Live Audio use-case: Implementation, integration, and optimization of disaggregated 5G components; optimization of 5G testbed for latency; network integration of live audio production into different 5G testbeds; Proof-of-concept cloud-based remote live audio production with wireless microphones/IEMs; Fully remote-controlled trials and measurements; Proof-of-concept for shared access to spectrum for a private 5G network. Live multi-camera use-case: End-to-end multi-camera live production and remote contribution; Analysis of PTP performances; Design and integration of a 5G portable camera interface unit; Development of the media gateway and the media operational control gateway; validation of the network slicing in the contribution scenario. Testing of a portable 5G standalone setup. FVV (Free Viewpoint Video) use-case: Development of a FVV system; Design and validation of a compact 5G+MEC; Deployment and testing of end-to-end transport slicing over SDN; End-to-end live trial of a music live event; Pioneer tests on immersive content production over millimetre-wave 5G RAN. [5G-RECORDS -1], [5G-RECORDS-2].
A first specification of the mechanisms for dynamic coverage and connectivity extension has been released [DEDICAT6G-4]. DEDICAT6G project addresses the design and development of mechanisms for the dynamic coverage and connectivity extension through the exploitation of innovative devices (e.g., drones, robots, connected cars, other mobile assets like forklifts in a warehouse, etc.). The overall aim is to enable the dynamic, opportunistic set up of dynamic coverage and connectivity extensions for covering areas that cannot be easily reached, where infrastructure is required only for a finite, short amount of time, or where regular network infrastructure has been damaged. First release of mechanisms for dynamic distribution of intelligence in the field of architectural techniques has been released [Dedicat6G-5].
5G-Blueprint has created an initial integrated pilot environment towards full end-to-end solutions for tele-operated driving using 5G network connectivity. It provides insights into the use cases, enabling function and 5G network, performance evaluation, results within cross-border scenarios [5GBlueprint-3]
Integration, execution and validation of 5G use cases from a variety of vertical sectors, including Industry 4.0, Smart Transport, Smart Cities & Utilities, Energy, Media & Entertainment, in tight collaboration with vertical partners of 5G EVE consortium ([5GEVE-4]). 5G EVE platform has been also used for validating a number of associated use cases developed by ICT19 projects.
5G-VINNI has demonstrated the integration, execution and validation of 5G use cases from a variety of vertical sectors, including Industry 4.0, Transport, Public Safety and Energy. 5G-VINNI has provided an SLA-enabled environment for validating a number of associated use cases developed by ICT19 projects.
5G-CLARITY’s technical innovations, e.g., in multi-connectivity and multi-technology positioning, were demonstrated in a Bosch factory plant (24th of November 2022, Aranjuez, Spain). The demonstrations’ results indicate that 5G can play a major role in Industry 4.0 scenarios due to its relatively stable coverage over a much larger area compared to Wi-Fi-6 coverage area. The implication on the latency is being analysed and will be published soon. [5G-CLARITY-1], [5G-CLARITY-2], [5G-CLARITY-3]
5GInduce will permit to deploy and develop advanced Industry 4.0 NetApp that will support innovative Industry 4.0 market verticals. Use cases will be demonstrated to guarantee Industry 4.0 and 5G KPI.
EVOLVED-5G consortium produced a reference architecture (reported in D2.1 and D2.2 [EVOLVED5G-6] and later updates in D3.1 [EVOLVED5G-7]), by the conceptualization of the necessary means, tools, components, and processes required, towards: Creating on top of the 5G facility a “Network App ecosystem”, where third party developers and SMEs can take advantage of the 5G programmability, and providing a detailed illustration of the “Network App lifecycle”, i.e., all the necessary phases – Development/ Verification, Validation, Certification and Publishing – each Network App shall go through, until the eventual release to the market. EVOLVED-5G has released in the related Github repository, initial versions of various Industry 4.0 related Network Apps. Fundamental principles on their functionality and implementation approach is provided in D4.1 and D4.2.
Smart5Grid has developed a hardware in the loop setup for pre-piloting testing and vertical experimentation between energy and communication infrastructure. The setup includes a real-time digital twin of power system, actual power devices and equipment, a network emulator for macroscopic emulation of the 5G communication infrastructure, and different hardware controller. The setup can be used to investigate how the communication infrastructure’s performance can affect a smart grid’s operation.
Implementation and evaluation of mission-critical services on private 5G networks based on the Affordable5G architecture and standardised 3GPP-compliant MCS communication channels [AFFORDABLE5G-3].
The Aquaculture scenarios have shown the following achievements:
5G infrastructures are needed when large amounts of sensors and many underwater cameras are used for monitoring the sea environments, AI applications have proven to be very valuable in the detection of needed feed and prediction of the harvesting period. Wireless communication is preferable in the sea compared to the use of fibers that suffer from a lot of maintenance.
5G-CARMEN trialled and demonstrated demanding CCAM services in a cross-border scenario based on current, commercial live 5G NSA networks. The use cases selected represented mission-critical scenarios for cooperative manoeuvring as foreseen in SAE Level 3+/4 automation. Implementations either used C-V2X short-range (LTE V2X PC5) combined with cellular (LTE/NR Uu) communication, or solely cellular communication (LTE/NR Uu) to communicate manoeuvre intentions, to compute manoeuvre recommendations/instructions (on the MECs involved) and to communicate back to the vehicles for execution (without automatic actuation). [5G-CARMEN-1] – [5G-CARMEN-4]
The 5GCroCo project trialled and validated different 5G technical solutions (i) that enhance CAM services, like MEC and QoS prediction, and (ii) that minimize the service interruption time when traversing a country border, like cross-MNO handover. For the latter, the project concluded that it is technically feasible to have service interruption times when crossing a border as short as 120 ms, allowing the continuity of CAM services. [5GCroCo-1] – [5GCroCo-4]
5G-MOBIX uses a series of CCAM Use Cases defined by 5GAA to analyse the impact of 5G inter-PLMN mobility in cooperative autonomous driving scenarios. Complex manoeuvres, such as lane merge and overtaking, platooning or remote driving trials are carried out in real roads at cross-border settings, based on the CCAM components developed by OEMs, 5G OBU and road infrastructure sensor providers, as well as MEC/cloud and application solutions. A deployment study was also conducted in the scope of the project, showing that based on the traffic projections of SSAE L3+ vehicles, the planned 5G deployment capacity may reveal itself insufficient to cope with some high bit rate CCAM applications under heavy CAVs penetration scenarios in specific cross-border corridors. However, if the 3.5 GHz frequency band is used instead of the 700 MHz, the expected available capacity fits well with the needs of future autonomous vehicles on European roads [5GMobix-1]-[5GMobix-3].
For the automotive use cases, it has been proven that slicing is able to guarantee sufficient radio resources for the delivery of time-critical CCAM traffic as well as video-audio streams on a 5G network. The latencies achieved with 5G were roughly half of those achieved in a 4G network. The Cooperative Collision Avoidance (COCA) scenarios have shown a very low latency below 10 ms even for a loaded traffic network.
5GASP partners are testing our platform and methodology through the integration of 11 NetApps on the Automotive and PPDR verticals with cross verticals use-cases. [5GASP-3]. In the Automotive trials, 5GASP partners aim to improve the access time to in-vehicle data and to enable low-latency remote driving by using virtual twins and ML-assisted handovers. The 5GASP framework provides an easy and fast deployment, testing and validation process of these solutions to economize the costly experimentation procedures. 5GASP is promoting an acceleration program for start-ups and SME’s (NetApp Lab) that wish to validate their netapp’s in the same conditions as partners, free of charge. [5GASP-2]
5G-IANA will define, implement and trial Connected and Automated Driving relevant use cases related to: remote driving, manoeuvres coordination for autonomous driving, virtual bus tour, Augmented Reality (AR) content delivery for vehicular networks, parking circulation and high risk driving hotspot detection, network status monitoring and Predictive QoS using OBUs and RSUs [5GIANA-3], and situational awareness in cross border road tunnel accidents.
5G-LOGINNOV finalised in Hamburg pilot the 5G deployments and the implementation of the data collection tools and systems for the truck-platoon& collision warning use cases. The data management is elaborated focussing on the central part and the KPIs available for final evaluation. The KPIs cover 5G specific and truck-platooning use case-specific items. Details on a per use case basis has been provided, including all relevant hardware and software components. The use cases are described from the perspective of architecture, but also from the end users view with relevant UIs, dashboards, etc. Additionally, the assets (i.e., trucks, IoT nodes, vehicles, etc.) that will be exploited for the trials and evaluation have been specified. Finally, a brief update on the open call winners and SMEs development status is depicted (dates, winners, meetings, etc.).
5GMETA will create a platform to use car-generated and captured data that will be processed by automotive industrial players.
COREnect analysed the market situation in the automotive market segment. It identified a shift from mechanics to electronics with the car becoming a “datacenter on wheels” [COREnect-2].
5G-ROUTES has made a market analysis conducted in the context of EC-funded @5gRoutes Project and the work undertaken by INLECOM’s team in the commercialization planning activities of the project. 5G as an Enabler of Connected-and-Automated Mobility in European Cross-Border Corridors—A Market Assessment. See the article [5GROUTES-3]. 5G-ROUTES chaired tutorial with deep technical talks on the topic of “5G-ROUTES: 5G for CAM Across Cross-Border Corridors” as part of on-going Baltic Electronic Conference 2022. [5GROUTES-4]
The 5G!Drones project successfully demonstrated the targeted use cases related to transport & logistics, public safety and media and entertainment. This was done in full accordance of the mapping of the UC to each of the 5G trial facilities of concern. This led to careful evaluation of each of the trials from which to learn. 5G!Drones project results were widely communicated, showcased and disseminated to communities of interest [5G!Drones-6]. Similar effort was done regarding commercial exploitation of the achievements [5G!Drones-7]. As for standardization activities performed they have also been fully reported [5G!Drones-8]
5G-ERA provides a reference robot design to improve the scalability of advanced autonomous solutions. By customising 5G Edge-to-Cloud infrastructure for machine vision, reinforcement learning, and environment perception, the autonomy is enhanced and scaled through containerised and connected global knowledge. Developers could deploy robots under their familiar environment, but without the restriction of local infrastructure. New products and services could be developed based on seamlessly integration of 5G Network Function Virtualisation (NFV) and emerging Cloud Robotics. Meanwhile, a new deployment environment for autonomous robots is fulfilled with optimised Quality of Experience on surveillant robots for PPDR (automated mobility), semi-autonomous delivery robots for transport (automated mobility), logistic robots for hospital (healthcare) and remote assistance for manufacturing process (Industry 4.0). [5G-ERA-1] – [5G-ERA-5].
VITAL-5G has defined use cases ([VITAL5G-7]) and implemented NetApps and services for Transport and Logistics scenarios ([VITAL5G-3]), with applications for assisted vessel transport, remote vessel monitoring, data-enabled assisted navigation and maps creation, predictive maintenance, remote monitoring and control of AGVs, follow-me services for human-robot collaboration, and autonomous pallet transportation within warehouses. The developed services will be experimentally validated in three trials in a sea port (Antwerp, BE), a river port (Galati, RO), and a warehouse (Athens, GR).
5G-LOGINNOV finalised the 5G deployments in all Living Labs, and the implementation of the data collection tools and systems. The development and deployment followed the deployment plans as defined in D2.1. To verify the development and deployment is fitting for the execution of the trials, the link is made with D3.1. First a generic overview of the 5G services and applications related to the use cases is given, providing a base to fall back on when reading the document. With this basis, data management is elaborated focussing on the central part and the KPIs available for evaluation. The tools use a combination of a central aggregator with site-specific deployments. The KPIs cover 5G specific and use case-specific items.
FRMCS (Future Railway Mobile Communication System) will be the 5G worldwide standard for railway operational communications, designed by the UIC (International Union of Railways), in close cooperation with the railways stakeholders. Developing this new system is a need, due to the announced obsolescence of GSM-R (Global System for Mobiles-Railways), currently supporting ERTMS (European Railway Traffic Management System). FRMCS is being specified and implemented as a standard, combining 5G SA network with Mission Critical features, besides supporting critical applications like Voice and ETCS, is considered as a major trigger for the digitalization of the rail sector. Operational railway use cases will be applied to validate all the 5GRAIL prototypes, under testing in a complete FRMCS ecosystem, including 5GSA core, IMS, MCX server and 5GNR. The lab tests will be followed by field trials with test tracks in the testbed of DBN, located in Germany and in SNCF’s test site in France.
5GASP partners are developing 3 PPDR-related NetApps to be onboarded to 6 testbeds via 5GASP platform in order for the 5GASP platform to be tested and validated. While the platform aims at providing an easy and fast deployment, testing and validation process, 5GASP partners’ PPDR NetApps are focusing on infrastructure elements providing reliable, fault-tolerant and secure communications as well as on customer-oriented applications benefiting on 5G low latency and transmission of real-time video and telemetry data. Through the Open Call for 3rd party NetApp developers, we are ready to onboard new NetApps to further help us in testing and validating 5GASP platform for PPDR-related use cases.
For the technology performance evaluation studies, Int5Gent relies in two extended experimentation testbeds with real field connectivity in Barcelona and Athens. The Barcelona testbed focuses on the unified service orchestration, and end-to-end resource allocation from core to access including a field-deployed access segment at FGC railway company to extract critical infrastructure and operational data and alert in real-time for potential failures or accidents. The Athens testbed extends towards the new data plane technologies while in addition showcasing the support of PPDR and the on-demand deployment of mobile nodes at the point of incidents [I5G-6].
5GTOURS technology demonstrates the utility of 5G applications developed directly in the airport to improve passengers’ safety end efficiency in the logistic. The trials, performed in the Athens airport are detailed in [5GTOURS-1, 5GTOURS-3, 5GTOURS-7].
5GTOURS showcased the activities related to e-health in the Rennes Hospital. As reported in [5GTOURS-1, 5GTOURS-3, 5GTOURS-6] health operators were totally satisfied by the promised capability of the technology.
The 5G!Drones project successfully demonstrated the targeted use cases related to transport & logistics, public safety and media and entertainment. This was done in full accordance of the mapping of the UC to each of the 5G trial facilities of concern. This led to careful evaluation of each of the trials from which to learn. 5G!Drones project results were widely communicated, showcased and disseminated to communities of interest [5G!Drones-6]. Similar effort was done regarding commercial exploitation of the achievements [5G!Drones-7]. As for standardization activities performed they have also been fully reported [5G!Drones-8]
5G-SOLUTIONS has defined Living-Labs (LLs) and use case scenarios and test cases for a) Factories of the Future, b) Smart Energy, c) Smart City and Ports d) Media and Entertainment, e) Concurrent Multi-Living-Lab. [5G SOLUTIONS-1] It has also deployed and tested those use cases in 3 separate cycles, with each cycle being an improvement to the previous one. Finally, it has validated the KPIs of those use cases against 5G targets and generated valuable lessons learned from all those steps. For the Media and Entertainment LL (LL4) see [5GSOLUTIONS-7]. The KPI Visualisation System supported collecting and visualising application and network-level KPIs from several UC within this area [5G-SOLUTIONS-6]. CDSO and ZTA solutions supported LL4 use cases are described in [5G-SOLUTIONS-7].
5GTOURS innovated in the area of Media, Entertainment, and Smart Tourism, showcasing innovative applications empowered by 5G in the City of Turin, as detailed in [5GTOURS-1, 5GTOURS-2, 5GTOURS-6].
Definition of use case scenarios and service KPIs for next-generation media Vertical applications that can benefit from 5G; these include Immersive 360 VR, Content Distribution via multi-CDN, Smart Media generation and Remote broadcasting.
Development of innovative components in both the networking and media production fields such as a Media Gateway and a Media Operational Control Gateway, among others. Integration of the network and media components into three 5G infrastructures from Eurecom, Ericsson and Nokia. Deployment of end-to-end trials and tests to evaluate the performance of the testbed infrastructures based on the required use-case key performance indicators and to showcase the European Union efforts in the deployment of 5G for professional content production applications. This is the case of, for instance, the multiple camera wireless production trial at Tivoli Garden, Copenhagen, and the live immersive media production trial in Madrid. [5G-RECORDS-4]
5G-Blueprint developed a techno-economic analysis methodology to assess the feasibility of using 5G technology to provide teleoperated transport, particularly in a cross-border setting. The methodology involved identifying deployment scenarios, conducting a business case viability study, and performing sensitivity analysis. [5GBlueprint-4]
In the context of contribution to standards, the project has brought its experimentation methodology to the ETSI TR 103 761 V0.0.7 (2021-10) [5GENESIS-6]. Also, 5GENESIS partners have collaborated with 5GEVE ones (TID partner) for providing contributions to the IETF Internet-Draft 5G transport network benchmarking [5GENESIS-7].
5G-VINNI introduced the various actor roles that will appear in the 5G ecosystem as well as the potential business relationships between them [5GVINNI-4]. The concept of Business Layer as an architectural component on top of the orchestration system and facilitates the business interaction of verticals enterprises was also introduced, with a set of KPIs were introduced for evaluating its performance [5GVINNI-5]. 5G-VINNI has contributed to 3GPP SA5, GSMA OPG and ETSI ZSM on aspects related to capability exposure mechanisms. An analysis of the business sustainability of advanced, multi-site experimentation and verification facilities was performed as well [5GVINNI-6] [5GVINNI-7] [5GVINNI-8].
5G-CLARITY technical innovations were contributed to standardization bodies, such as 3GPP and ETSI. The new concepts contributed are on the ‘redundant traffic steering mode’ in 3GPP SA2 work item ‘FS_ATSSS_Ph3’ (Rel-18); and a new subsection in 3GPP SA5, TS28.557, work item ‘OAM_NPN’ (Rel-17) to identify and describe the roles of that are relevant for the management of NPNs. There are several other contributions on requirements and use cases, etc., to the standardisation bodies as well. [5G-CLARITY-1], [5G-CLARITY-3]
5GInduce will identify potential business opportunities involving the stakeholders (industrial player, telco, NetApp developers etc). A beneficial business model will be achieved.
The concepts of the project have already been received as potential inputs to 3GPP standardisation, and especially in the WG of SA2 and SA6. For example, two new project-related Study Items have been provided in TR 23.700/99 and TR 23.700/36 and a new subclause is added in TS 23.288.
The exploitation strategy of the three Living Labs is described together with the Key Exploitable Results (KERs) for each area. The description of each KER emphasizes the stakeholders’ and users’ needs to be addressed, the potential benefits of the deployed results and if any Intellectual Property Right (IPR) issue is foreseen. The same approach has been used to describe the “horizontal” project results, i.e., those KERs generated by project activities not strictly related to Living Labs implementations.
5GMETA will be focused on business-driven design with API and architecture necessary to prototype, train and launch new services.5GMETA intend to define a monetization model compatible with stakeholder.
Assessment of different 5G network configurations with regard to their applicability in production use cases. Discussion of the regulatory framework, in particular those that directly impact the business potential of 5G SNPNs in professional content production. Recommendations to the regulators regarding spectrum access and use. Brief overall assessment of the current state of the market. Findings were presented to external stakeholders, including EBZ members and 5G-MAG. Reference to regulatory framework and business analysis [5G-RECORDS-5], [5G-RECORDS-6]. Publication of scientific results, contributing to standardization organizations like 3GPP and ITU-T and industry consortia like AMWA and VSF. 5G-RECORDS components were demonstrated in different events (e.g., EBU Network Technology Seminar, SMPTE TC meeting, IBC event, Ericsson Innovation Day event). Dissemination of the project results among the industry and research bodies (SMPTE, MPEG, 5G-MAG, AMWA, VSF). [5G-RECORDS-7]
COREnect compiled an industry roadmap with detailed insights on strategic actions required to achieve European leadership in microelectronics and connectivity within the next 10 years.
AI@EDGE technical work in the Radio Access Network includes the addition to the SRS stack of the E2 interface, nearreal time and non-real time RICs as specified by the O-RAN alliance, and the enabling of slicing through the support of S-NSSAIs as per release 15. The addition of the O-RAN specific features will allow AI@EDGE to exploit AIFs for the management of the RAN and prediction of events and anomolies across multiple domains via closed loop automation. The addition of slicing will allow for QoS assurances within the RAN depenedent on end-user requirements. These slices will be deployed at run-time based on the needs of users as reported by MEC apps, with the RAN then provisioning the appropriate resources.
One of the main objectives of 5GRAIL is the validation of FRMCS V1 specifications, which will be included in the CCS TSI (Control Command and Signalling Technical Specifications for Interoperability) to be published by DG MOVE by the end of 2022. The design of TOBA and the lab testing activities have already triggered CRs (Change Requests) in 3GPP MCX specifications and influence UIC FRMCS specifications. The loop back to the specifications will be included in one of the final deliverables of 5GRAIL, D1.4.
[5GEVE-1] 5G EVE Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-eve/
[5GEVE-2] 5G EVE Deliverable D1.3 – “5G-EVE end to end facility reference architecture for vertical industries and core applications” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3628333
[5GEVE-3] 5G EVE Deliverable D2.3 – “Final 5G-EVE end to end facility description” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5070253
[5GEVE-4] 5G EVE Deliverable D2.5 – “Final pilot test and validation” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5070256
[5GEVE-5] 5G EVE Deliverable D3.5 – “Final implementation of the interworking reference model” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4964933
[5GEVE-6] 5G EVE Deliverable D4.6 – “Final version of the experimentation portal” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4964994
[5GEVE-7] 5G EVE Deliverable D5.8 – “Testing and validation methodologies final report with the final version of testing and validation suite” https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4965106
[5GENESIS-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5genesis/
[5GENESIS-2] 5GENESIS project, Deliverable D2.2, 5GENESIS Overall Facility Design and Specification.
[5GENESIS-3] 5GENESIS project, Deliverable D6.1, Trials and experimentation – cycle 1.
[5GENESIS-4] 5GENESIS project Deliverable D6.3 Trials and experimentation (cycle 3).
[5GENESIS-5] 5GENESIS github repository including open5GENESIS suite. Online available: https://github.com/5genesis
[5GENESIS-6] ETSI TR 103 761 V1.1.1 (2022-05), Core Network and Interoperability Testing (INT); Methodologies for E2E Testing & Validation of Vertical Applications over 5G & Beyond networks.
[5GENESIS-7] IETF Internet Draft 5G transport network benchmarking.
[5GVINNI-1] 5G-VINNI Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-vinni/
[5GVINNI-2] 5G-VINNI project, First Speedtest Results by 5G-VINNI, Online: https://www.5g-vinni.eu/2020/01/29/first-speedtest-results-by-5g-vinni/
[5GVINNI-3] Opentap, https://opentap.io/
[5GVINNI-4] 5G-VINNI project, Deliverable D5.1, Ecosystem analysis and specification of B&E KPIs. Online: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3345665
[5GVINNI-5] 5G-VINNI deliverable D5.2 Business requirements and fundamentals of the 5G-VINNI Business Layer, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3928280
[5GVINNI-6] Xie et al., “Towards Closed Loop 5G Service Assurance Architecture for Network Slices as a Service,” 2019 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), Valencia, Spain, 2019, pp. 139-143, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/335194004_Towards_Closed_Loop_5G_Service_Assurance_Architecture_for_Network_Slices_as_a_Service
[5GVINNI-7] Ordonez-Lucena, C. Tranoris and J. Rodrigues, “Modeling Network Slice as a Service in a Multi-Vendor 5G Experimentation Ecosystem,” 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications Workshops (ICC Workshops), Dublin, Ireland, 2020, pp. 1-6 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342383742_Modeling_Network_Slice_as_a_Service_in_a_Multi-Vendor_5G_Experimentation_Ecosystem
[5GVINNI-8] Ordonez-Lucena, C. Tranoris, J. Rodrigues and L. M. Contreras, “Cross-domain Slice Orchestration for Advanced Vertical Trials in a Multi-Vendor 5G Facility,” 2020 European Conference on Networks and Communications (EuCNC), Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2020, pp. 40-45, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342384522_Cross-domain_Slice_Orchestration_for_Advanced_Vertical_Trials_in_a_Multi-Vendor_5G_Facility
[5GCARMEN-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-carmen/
[5G-CARMEN-2] Project website: https://5gcarmen.eu
[5G-CARMEN-3] News and events: https://5gcarmen.eu/news-events/
[5G-CARMEN-4] Project deliverables and publications: https://5gcarmen.eu/publications/
[5GCroCo-1] 5GCroCo Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gcroco/
[5GCroCo-2] 5GCroCo Demo Day Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOpA1tuQjdM
[5GCroCo-3] 5GCroCo Public Web-Seminars, Online: https://5gcroco.eu/news/webseminars.html Slides available at: https://5gcroco.eu/publications/material.html
[5GCroCo-4] 5GCroCo Project Deliverables Online: https://5gcroco.eu/publications/deliverables.html
[5GMobix-1] 5G-MOBIX Project Overview https://www.5g-mobix.com/
[5GMobix-2] 5G-MOBIX Deliverables https://www.5g-mobix.com/resources/deliverables
[5GMobix-3] 5G-MOBIX Webinars https://www.5g-mobix.com/resources/webinars
[5GMobix-4] 5G-MOBIX D3.7 “Final report about development, integration, roll-out” https://www.5g-mobix.com/resources/deliverables
[5GMobix-5] 5G-MOBIX D5.2 “Report on technical evaluation”, https://www.5g-mobix.com/resources/deliverables
[5G!Drones-1] 5G!Drones Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gdrones/
[5G!Drones-2] 5G!Drones H2020 ICT-19-2019 5G-PPP 5GDrones Project – Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Vertical Applications’ Trials Leveraging Advanced 5G Facilities
[5G!Drones-3] D1.6 5G!Drones system architecture refined design
[5G!Drones-4] D3.1 Report on infrastructure-level enablers for 5G!Drones
[5G!Drones-5] D3.2 Report on vertical service-level enablers for 5G!Drones
[5G!Drones-6] D5.5 Final report on communication, showcasing, dissemination and exploitation
[5G!Drones-7] D5.4 Report on contribution to standardisation and international fora– 2nd Version
[5G!Drones-8] D5.6 Report on activities related to commercial exploitation and partnership development
[5G-HEART-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-heart/
[5G-HEART-1] D4.3: Evolved Solution and Verification of Transport Use Case Trials, November 2021
[5G-HEART-2] D4.4: Final Solutions for Transport Verticals Use of 5G, November 2022
[5G-HEART 3] D5.3: Evolved Solution and Verification of Aquaculture Use Case Trials November 2021
[5G-HEART-4] D5.4: Final Solutions for Aquaculture Vertical Use of 5G
[5G-SOLUTIONS-1] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project Overview: https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-solutions/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-2] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D1.1B, Definition and analysis of use cases/scenarios and corresponding KPIs based on LLs (v2.0), Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-3] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D2.4B, Living Labs planning, setup, operational management handbook (final), Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-4] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D2.2D, Specifications & design of CDSO plugins CDSO plugins (v3.0), Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-5] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D2.3B, Zero-touch automation mechanisms for 5G service lifecycle (v2.0), Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-6] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D3.2C, KPI Visualisation System and interfaces implementation and deployment (v3.0), Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5G-SOLUTIONS-7] 5G-SOLUTIONS Project, Deliverable D6.3C, LL performance evaluation and lessons learned v3, Online: https://www.5gsolutionsproject.eu/dissemination/public-deliverables/
[5GTOURS-1] 5GTOURS Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-tours/
[5GTOURS-2] 5GTOURS Touristic City https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OFSWGnYAbs
[5GTOURS-3] 5GTOURS Mobility Efficient City https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yJqfLOgoMww
[5GTOURS-4] 5GTOURS Safe City https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2caaAJQ7a0
[5GTOURS-5] 5GTOURS D4.4 http://5gtours.eu/documents/deliverables/D4.4.pdf
[5GTOURS-6] 5GTOURS D5.4 http://5gtours.eu/documents/deliverables/D5.4.pdf
[5GTOURS-7] 5GTOURS D6.4 http://5gtours.eu/documents/deliverables/D6.4.pdf
[5G-CLARITY-1] 5G-CLARITY Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-clarity/
5G-CLARITY-2] 5G-CLARITY YouTube Channel: https://www.youtube.com/@5g-clarity458
[5G-CLARITY-3] 5G-CLARITY Deliverables: https://www.5gclarity.com/index.php/deliverables/
[5G-COMPLETE-1] 5G COMPLETE Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-complete/
[5GZORRO-1] 5GZORRO Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gzorro/
[5GZORRO-2] 5GZORRO D2.4: Final design of the 5GZORRO Platform for Security & Trust, https://www.5gzorro.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/5GZORRO_D2.4_v1.0-Final_withWM.pdf
[5GZORRO-3] 5GZORRO D3.3: Final design of the evolved 5G Service layer solutions https://www.5gzorro.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/5GZORRO_D3.3_v4.0_final-withWM.pdf
[5GZORRO-4] 5GZORRO D4.4: Final design of Zero Touch Service Mgmt with Security & Trust solutions, https://www.5gzorro.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/06/5GZORRO_D4.4_v1.1_Final-withWM.pdf
[5GZORRO-5] 5GZORRO D5.3: Business models and Validation of 5GZORRO security & trust framework (in progress)
[5GZORRO-6] ETSI ZSM ISG PoC#5, https://zsmwiki.etsi.org/index.php?title=PoC_5_On-demand_Non-Public_Networks_(NPNs)_for_industry_4.0:_zero-touch_provisioning_practices_in_public-private_network_environments.
[ARIADNE-1] ARIADNE Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/ariadne/
[ARIADNE-2] Deliverable D2.3 “Final results in directional links analysis, and algorithm designs”
[ARIADNE-3] White Paper “On communication-theoretic models for programmable wireless environments enabled by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces”, June 2021
ARIADNE White Paper ““On communication-theoretic models for programmable wireless environments enabled by reconfigurable intelligent surfaces”
[ARIADNE-4] Deliverable D3.1 “Report on baseband and antenna concepts”
[ARIADNE-5] Deliverable D3.2 “Report on simulations of first RFIC implementations”
[ARIADNE-6] Deliverable D3.3 “Report on the baseband design, D-band antenna designs and metasurfaces”
[ARIADNE-7] Deliverable D4.3 “Final results on adaptive directional LOS and NLOS reliable connectivity”
[INSPIRE-5Gplus-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/inspire-5gplus/
[INSPIRE-5Gplus-2] Intelligent Security Architecture for 5G and Beyond Networks White Paper, Online: https://5g-ppp.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/11/INSPIRE-5Gplus_White_Paper_HLA_2.0.pdf
[INSPIRE-5Gplus-3] INSPIRE-5Gplus Project Deliverables Online: https://www.inspire-5gplus.eu/public-deliverables/
[LOCUS -1] LOCUS Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/locus/
[LOCUS-2] Project deliverables and information are available at https://www.locus-project.eu/ with publications available at https://zenodo.org/communities/locus-project/?page=1&size=20
[LOCUS-3] “LOCUS: Localization and analytics on-demand embedded in the 5G ecosystem,” Proc. IEEE EUCNC 2020, available at https://zenodo.org/record/4072266#.Y5NmkS9aZ0s
[LOCUS-4] “Location awareness in beyond 5G networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 22–27, Nov. 2021, special issue on Location Awareness for 5G and Beyond, available at https://zenodo.org/record/7419435#.Y5NzZi9aZ0s
[LOCUS-5] “Location-based Analytics in 5G and Beyond”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 38–43, Jul. 2021, available at https://zenodo.org/record/7419469#.Y5Nzpy9aZ0s
[LOCUS-6] “5G and beyond for contact tracing”, IEEE Commun. Mag., vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 36–41, Sep. 2021, available at https://zenodo.org/record/5157830#.Y5Nm0C9aZ0s
[MonB5G-1] MonB5G Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/monb5G/
[MonB5G-2] S. Kuklinski et al. “AI-driven predictive and scalable management and orchestration of network slices”, in ITU Journal on Future and Evolving Technologies (ITU-J-FET) – Vol3, Issue 3, December 2022, Online: https://www.itu.int/pub/S-JNL-VOL3.ISSUE3-2022-A44.
[MonB5G-3] Demo mMTC DDoS attack detection in 5G. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QzCmGfwtDLA
[MonB5G-4] ETSI ZSM PoC 7 Zero-touch closed-control security management of attacks detection and mitigation. https://zsmwiki.etsi.org/index.php?title=PoC_7_Zero-touch_closed-control_security_management_of_attacks_detection_and_mitigation
[MonB5G-5] Esteves, José Jurandir Alves, et al. “A heuristically assisted deep reinforcement learning approach for network slice placement.” IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (2021), https://arxiv.org/abs/2105.06741.
[MonB5G-6] H. Chergui and al., “Zero-Touch AI-driven Distributed Management for Energy Efficient 6G Massive Network Slicing”, IEEE Network Magazine, 2021, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/357998815_Zero-Touch_AI-Driven_Distributed_Management_for_Energy-Efficient_6G_Massive_Network_Slicing .
[MonB5G-7] M. Mekki et al. “Benchmarking on Microservices Configurations and the impact on the Performance in Cloud Native Environments”, Dataset available at https://zenodo.org/record/6907619#.Y5G2pS_wvi0
[TERAWAY-1] TERAWAY Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/teraway/
[TERAWAY-2] TERAWAY Project publications – M. U. Sheikh et. al., ‘X-Haul Solutions for Different Functional Split Options Using THz and Sub-THz Bands’, MobiWac ’22, 2022 (doi: 10.1145/3551660.3560921)
[TERAWAY-3] TERAWAY Project publications – B. W. Snyder et. al., ‘Assembly of mobile 5G transceiver based on photonic motherboard’, Photonics West 2022, Proceedings Volume 12007, Optical Interconnects XXII; 120070K, 2022 (doi.org/10.1117/12.26166)
[TERAWAY-4] TERAWAY Project publications – M. Deumer et al., ‘Waveguide-integrated photoconductive THz receivers,” 2022 47th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz), 2022, pp. 1-2, 2022 (doi: 10.1109/IRMMW-THz50927.2022.9895580).
[TERAWAY-5] TERAWAY Project publications – T. Qian et. al, ‘Hybrid Polymer THz Receiver PIC with Waveguide Integrated Photoconductive Antenna: Concept and 1st Characterization Results,’ in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2022, S. Matsuo, D. Plant, J. Shan Wey, C. Fludger, R. Ryf, and D. Simeonidou, eds., Technical Digest Series (Optica Publishing Group, 2022), paper W3D.6.
[TERAWAY-6] TERAWAY Project publications – S. Nellen et. al., ‘Photonic-enabled beam steering at 300 GHz using a photodiode-based antenna array and a polymer-based optical phased array’, Opt. Express 30, 44701-44716, 2022 (doi: 10.1364/OE.472507)
[TERAWAY-7] TERAWAY Project publications – E. Andrianopoulos et al., ‘Optical Generation and Transmission of mmWave Signals in 5G ERA: Experimental Evaluation Paradigm,” in IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, 34 (19), pp. 1011-1014, 2022 (doi: 10.1109/LPT.2022.3196632).
[5GASP-1] 5GASP Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gasp/
[5GASP-2] 5GASP Net App Lab Event summary video https://youtu.be/oqqwgWxYUL0
[5GASP-3] 5GASP Multimedia Content for dissemination https://community.5gasp.eu/index.php/multimedia/
[5GASP-4] 5GASP Project Deliverables Online: https://www.5gasp.eu/publications/deliverables.html
[5GASP-5] 5GASP Software repository: https://github.com/5gasp
[5GASP-6] 5GASP NetApp Community Portal: https://community.5gasp.eu
[5G-ERA-1] 5G-ERA Project Overview, Online: https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-era/
[5G-ERA-2] 5G-ERA Software repository, Online: https://github.com/5G-ERA/
[5G-ERA-3] 5G-ERA Project Initial Project Video, Online: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=onze4jM2J0A
[5G-ERA-4] 5G-ERA Workshop and Demo, Online: https://5g-era.eu/workshops-demos/
[5GIANA-1] 5G-IANA Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-iana/
[5GIANA-2] 5G-IANA Deliverable D2.1 Specifications (available by 31/5/2022)
[5GIANA-3] Distributed Machine learning for Network Monitoring and predictive QoS in Automotive Applications
[5GINDUCE-1] 5GInduce project overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-induce/
[5GINDUCE-2] 5GInduce web site https://www.5g-induce.eu/
[5GINDUCE-3] Use case in 5GInduce project https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lv-drmqjIOc
[5GMediaHUB-1] 5GMediaHUB Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gmediahub/
[5GMediaHUB-2] D3.7: CSDO deployment, 5G testbeds upgrade & interfacing and slice management – Initial, https://www.5gmediahub.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/D3.7_submitted.pdf
[5GMediaHUB-3]: D2.1: Northbound API, NetApps and NetApps Repository development – Initial, https://www.5gmediahub.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/5GMediaHUB_D2.1_submitted.pdf
[EVOLVED5G-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/evolved-5g/
[EVOLVED5G-2] EVOLVED-5G project, online material, main GitHub repository: https://github.com/EVOLVED-5G
[EVOLVED5G-3] EVOLVED-5G project, online material, instructions for third party developer: https://evolved5g-cli.readthedocs.io/en/latest/
[EVOLVED5G-4] Dimitris Tsolkas, Jorge Moratinos Salcines, Stavros-Anastasios Charismiadis, Alejandro Molina Sanchez, & David Artuñedo Guillen. (2022). Documentation on the EVOLVED-5G CAPIF core function (CCF) Release 1.0 (Release 1.0). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7368938 .
[EVOLVED5G-5] EVOLVED-5G Deliverable D4.1 5G Exposure Capabilities for Vertical Applications.
[EVOLVED5G-6] EVOLVED-5G Deliverable D2.2 Design of the NetApps development and evaluation environments.
[EVOLVED5G-7] EVOLVED-5G Deliverable D3.1 Implementations and integrations towards EVOLVED-5G framework realization.
[SMART5GRID-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/smart5grid/
[SMART5GRID-2] Deliverable 2.1 Use cases, system requirements and planned demonstrations
[SMART5GRID-3] Deliverable 2.2 Overall Architecture Design, Technical Specifications and Technology Enablers
[SMART5GRID-4] Deliverable 3.1 Interim report for the development of the 5G network facility
[VITAL5G-1] VITAL-5G project overview: https://5g-ppp.eu/vital-5g/
[VITAL5G-2] VITAL-5G D1.2, “System Specifications and Architecture”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/VITAL5G-D1.2-5G-system-specifications-and-architecture_Final.pdf
[VITAL5G-3] VITAL-5G D2.1, “Initial NetApps blueprints and Open Repository design”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/VITAL5G_D2.1_Initial_NetApps_blueprints_and_Open_Repository_design_Final.pdf
[VITAL5G-4] VITAL-5G D3.1, “Report on VITAL-5G infrastructure upgrades & extensions”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/VITAL-5G_D3.1-Report-on-VITAL-5G-infrastructure-upgrades-extensions_v1.0.pdf
[VITAL5G-5] VITAL-5G D2.2, “VITAL-5G experimentation platform – Early (testing) drop”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/04/VITAL5G-D2.2_VITAL-5G_experimentation_platform_Early_testing_drop_v1.0.pdf
[VITAL5G-6] VITAL-5G D1.4, “Testing and validation methodology”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/01/VITAL5G-D1.4-Testing-and-validation-methodology_Final.pdf
[VITAL5G-7] VITAL-5G D1.1, “Report on use case requirements”, available online: https://www.vital5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/05/VITAL5G-D1.1_Report-on-Use-case-requirements-v2.0.pdf
[5G-LOGINNOV] 5G-LOGINNOV Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-loginnov/
[5G-LOGINNOV] Deliverable D2.3 Development and deployment final report, https://5g-loginnov.eu/library/
[5G-LOGINNOV] Deliverable D5.4 Exploitation Plan, https://5g-loginnov.eu/library/
[5GMETA-1] 5GMETA project overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5gmeta/
[5GMETA-2] 5GMETA website https://5gmeta-project.eu/
[5GMETA-3] 5GMETA use cases https://5gmeta-project.eu/use-cases/
[5GMETA-4] 5GMETA hackathon https://5gmeta-project.eu/5gmeta-hackathon-5g-enabled-car-captured-data-creating-high-tech-innovation/
[5G-RECORDS-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-records/
[5G-RECORDS-2] Complete description of 5G components
[5G-RECORDS-3] Media Production and Orchestration layer
[5G-RECORDS-4] Final Trials and Technology Validation
[5G-RECORDS-5] Regulatory framework and business models for 5G content production
[5G-RECORDS-6] Business Analysis
[5G-RECORDS-7] Dissemination and Exploitation https://www.5g-records.eu/Deliverables/5G-RECORDS_D6.4_v1.0_web.pdf
[AFFORDABLE5G-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/affordable5g/
[AFFORDABLE5G-2] A. Giannopoulos et al., “Supporting Intelligence in Disaggregated Open Radio Access Networks: Architectural Principles, AI/ML Workflow, and Use Cases,” in IEEE Access, vol. 10, pp. 39580-39595, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3166160.
[AFFORDABLE5G-3] Deliverable 4.1 of Affordbale5G “D4.1: Integration and Affordable5G roll-out plans”, available at: http://www.affordable5g.eu/wp-content/uploads/sites/63/2022/03/D4.1.pdf
[COREnect-1] COREnect Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/corenect/
[COREnect-2] Final COREnect Industry Roadmap https://www.corenect.eu/s/COREnect_D36_Final_COREnect_Industry_Roadmap-r8z8.pdf
[COREnect-3] COREnect White Paper “Passive user or innovative driver? Europe’s future role in microelectronics and connectivity”, Online: https://www.corenect.eu/s/COREnect-white-paper-Europes-future-role-in-microelectronics-and-connectivity.pdf
[DRAGON-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/dragon/
[I5G-1] Int5Gent Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/int5gent/
[I5G-2] D Klonidis et al. “Int5Gent: An integrated end-to-end system platform for verticals and data plane solutions beyond 5G”, EUCNC, July 2021, DOI: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5087752).
[I5G-3] Chia-Yi Wu, Haolin Li, Joris Van Kerrebrouck, Caro Meysmans, Piet Demeester, and Guy Torfs “A Bit-Interleaved Sigma-Delta-Over-Fiber Fronthaul Network for Frequency-Synchronous Distributed Antenna Systems”, 3 December 2021, Special Issue 5G and Beyond Fiber-Wireless Network Communications, (DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/app112311471).
[I5G-4] Eugenio Ruggeri, Christos Vagionas, Ronis Maximidis, George Kalfas, Dimosthenis Spasopoulos, Nikos Terzenidis, Ruud M. Oldenbeuving, Paul W. L. van Dijk, Chris G.H. Roeloffzen, Nikos Pleros and Amalia Miliou, “Reconfigurable Fiber Wireless fronthaul with A-RoF and D-RoF co-existence through a Si3N4 ROADM for Heterogeneous mmWave 5G C-RANs”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, (DOI: 10.1109/jlt.2022.3179636).
[I5G-5] Int5Gent D2.1 Complete 5G system architecture and requirements.
[6GBRAINS-1] 6G BRAINS Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/6g-brains/
[6GBRAINS-2] Dupleich, Diego, Han, Niu, Cosmas, John, Eappen, Geoffrey, & Ali, Kareem. (2021). D3.1 3D Laser measurement of one factory at Bosch with 3D cloud scanner and 3D hand scanner. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5786456
[6GBRAINS-3] Koffman, Israel, Globen, Baruch, Eappen, Geoffrey, Cosmas, John, Zhang, Yue, Lu, Ge, Li, Wei, & Gavras, Anastasius. (2021). D4.1 Design and Description of the Intelligant IAB and RmUE/mUE and human-centric control interfaces over Dynamic Ultra-dense D2D Cell Free Network (1.0). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6794507
[6GBRAINS-4] Zhang, Yue, Ge, Lu, Cosmas, John, Meunier, Ben, Eappen, Geoffrey, Ali, Kareem, Koffman, Israel, Kazmierowski, Alexandre, Gabillon, Victor, Artemenko, Alexander, Wostradowski, Uwe, & Khoa Le, Ta Dang. (2021). D2.3 Multi-agent Deep Reinforcement Learning Scheme Specifications. Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5786348
[6GBRAINS-5] Schmidt, Robert, Ta Dank Khoa Le, Nguyen, Hung, Arouk, Osama, Sanchez, Ruben Ricart, Matencio Escolar, Antonio, Salva Garcia, Pablo, Chirivella Perez, Enrique, Sanchez Navarro, Ignacio, Khadmaoui-Bichouna, Mohamed, Alcarez Calero, Jose M., Wang, Qi, Carre, Ludovic, Kazmierowski, Alexandre, & Cosmas, John. (2021). D5.1 E2E Network Slicing Control Enablers (1.0). Zenodo. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6794542
[AI@EDGE-1] AI@EDGE Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/aiatedge/
[AI@EDGE-2] Nour El Houda Yellas, Bernardetta Addis, Roberto Riggio, and Stefano Secci, “Function Placement and Acceleration for In-Network Federated Learning Services” in Proc. of IEEE CNSM 2022, Thessaloniki, Greece. Open Access: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03883727
[AI@EDGE -3] AI@EDGE Project Deliverables Online: https://aiatedge.eu/publications
[B5G-OPEN-1] B5G-OPEN Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/b5g-open/
[B5G-OPEN-2] Project Summary https://www.b5g-open.eu/project/
[B5G-OPEN-3] M. Sena, at al, “Advanced DSP-based Monitoring for Spatially-resolved and Wavelength-dependent Amplifier Gain Estimation and Fault Location in C+L-band Systems”, JLT 2022, open access: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9896153
[B5G-OPEN-4] S. Barzegar, M. Ruiz, and L. Velasco, “Packet Flow Capacity Autonomous Operation based on Reinforcement Learning,” MDPI Sensors, vol. 21, pp. 8306, 2021. Open access, https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/21/24/8306
[B5G-OPEN-5] Ramon Casellas, Evangelos Kosmatos, Andrew Lord, Chris Matrakidis, Ricardo Martínez, Dimitris Uzunidis, Ricard Vilalta, Alexandros Stavdas, Raül Muñoz, “An SDN Control Plane for Multiband Networks Exploiting a PLI-aware Routing Engine”, OFC2022, open access: https://zenodo.org/record/7260206#.Y3YpK3bMK3B
[DAEMON-1] Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/daemon/
[DAEMON-2] DAEMON D6.2 “Report on Communication, dissemination and exploitation results and updated CoDEP for Y2” on January 28th, 2022: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5930346
[DAEMON-3] DAEMON D4.1 “Initial design of intelligent orchestration and management mechanisms” on November 30th, 2021: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5745456
[DAEMON-4] DAEMON D3.1 “Initial design of real-time control and VNF intelligence mechanisms” on November 30th, 2021: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5745433
[DAEMON-5] DAEMON D2.2 “Initial DAEMON Network Intelligence framework and toolsets” on August 7th, 2022: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6970839
[DEDICAT6G-1] DEDICAT 6G project website https://dedicat6g.eu/
[DEDICAT6G-2] Deliverable 2.3 “Revised scenario description and requirements” https://dedicat6g.eu/results/deliverables/
[DEDICAT6G-3] Deliverable 2.4 “Revised System Architecture” https://dedicat6g.eu/results/deliverables/
[DEDICAT6G-4] Deliverable 4.1 “First release of mechanisms for dynamic coverage and connectivity extension” https://dedicat6g.eu/results/deliverables/
[DEDICAT6G-5] Deliverable 3.1 “Mechanisms-for-dynamic-distribution-of-Intelligence” https://dedicat6g.eu/results/deliverables/
[Hexa-X-1] Hexa-X Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/hexa-x/
[Hexa-X-2] Hexa-X deliverables: https://hexa-x.eu/deliverables
[Hexa-X-3] Hexa-X youtube channel: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC_pKq13zKmepaEtl2Wv1dyg
[MARSAL-2] MARSAL Deliverable 3.1: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_D3_1_v1-final.pdf
[MARSAL-3] MARSAL Deliverable 3.2: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_D3_2_final.pdf
[MARSAL-4] MARSAL Deliverable 4.1: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_D4_1_vf.pdf
[MARSAL-5] MARSAL Deliverable 4.2: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_-D4_2_V1.0-final.pdf
[MARSAL-6] MARSAL Deliverable 5.1: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_D5.1_V1.0.pdf
[MARSAL-7] MARSAL Deliverable 5.2: https://www.marsalproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/MARSAL_D5.2.pdf
[REINDEER-1] REINDEER Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/reindeer/
[REINDEER-2] REINDEER Project Deliverables https://reindeer-project.eu/public-deliverables/
[REINDEER-3] G. Callebaut, W. Tärneberg, L. Van der Perre, E. Fitzgerald, ‘Dynamic Federations for 6G Cell-Free Networking: Concepts and Terminology’, 2022 IEEE 23rd Intl. Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communication (SPAWC), https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.02102
[REINDEER-4] REINDEER Project Publications https://reindeer-project.eu/scientific-publications/
[TF-1] TeraFlow project overview https://5g-ppp.eu/teraflow/
[TF-2] R. Vilalta et al., Teraflow: Secured autonomic traffic management for a tera of sdn flows
Joint European Conference on Networks and Communications & 6G Summit 2021.
[TF-3] TeraFlow Project Deliverables Online: https://www.teraflow-h2020.eu/library/deliverables
[5GMED-1] 5GMED Project Overview Online: https://5g-ppp.eu/5gmed/
[5GMED-2] 5GMED Project Deliverables Online: https://5gmed.eu/category/deliverable/
[5GRAIL-1]: 5GRAIL Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5grail/
[5GRAIL-4]: presentation given during IEEE FNWF ’22: https://5grail.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/5GRAIL_Nets4Workshop_16-17112021.pdf
[5GRAIL-5]: 5GRAIL Deliverable D3.1 First Lab Integration and Architecture Description: http://5grail.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/D3.1-First-Lab-Integration-and-Architecture-Description.pdf
[5GRAIL-6]: 5GRAIL Deliverable D3.2 First Lab Test Setup Report:http://5grail.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/D3.2-First-Lab-Test-Setup-Report.pdf
[5GRAIL-7]: 5GRAIL poster showcased during TRA2022: http://5grail.eu/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/TRA2022-A1-Poster-5GRail-paper_ID622_v2.pdf
[5GROUTES-1] 5G-Routes Project Overview https://5g-ppp.eu/5g-routes/
[5GROUTES-2] 5G-Routes Project web page https://www.5g-routes.eu/
[5GROUTES-3] 5G as an Enabler of Connected-and-Automated Mobility in European Cross-Border Corridors—A Market Assessment https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/21/14411/htm
[5GROUTES-4] Tutorial with deep technical talks on the topic of “5G-ROUTES: 5G for CAM Across Cross-Border Corridors” as part of on-going Baltic Electronic Conference 2022 https://taltech.ee/en/bec2022
[5GROUTES-5] Seamless Connectivity over Sea and on Harbours workshope on 5G Techritory https://www.5gtechritory.com/seamless-connectivity/
[5GBlueprint-1] “Leveraging 5G to Enable Automated Barge Control: 5G-Blueprint Perspectives and Insights”, Nina Slamnik-Krijestorac, Wim Vandenberghe, Najmeh Masoudi-Dione, Stijn Van Staeyen, Lian Xiangyu, Rakshith Kusumakar, Johann M. Marquez-Barja. IEEE 20th Annual Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC). pp 1-4. January, 2023. Las Vegas, United States of America. Online availability: https://www.5gblueprint.eu/library/scientific-publications/
[5GBlueprint-2] “Performance Validation Strategies for 5G-enhanced Transport & Logistics: The 5G-Blueprint Approach”, Nina Slamnik-Krijestorac, Wim Vandenberghe, Rakshith Kusumakar, Karel Kural, Matthijs Klepper, Geerd Kakes, Linde Vande Velde, Johann M. Marquez-Barja. IEEE Future Networks World Forum (FNWF). pp 1-6. October, 2022. Montreal, Canada. Online availability: https://www.5gblueprint.eu/library/scientific-publications/
[5GBlueprint-3] 5G Blueprint Deliverable 7.2 Online: https://www.5gblueprint.eu/library/deliverables/
[5GBlueprint-4] 5G Blueprint Deliverable 3.3 Online: https://www.5gblueprint.eu/library/deliverables/